A brushless motor is an electric motor that has a stator and a rotor, with commutation that is conducted through the electrical synchronization of the currents. As current flows through the three phases of the winding, a magnetic field is generated and interacts with the permanent magnets on the rotor, inducing rotation around the center axis.
The distinguishing feature of a brushed motor is the method of commutation. Instead of synchronous electrical phases, a brushed motor has two brushes that supply current to the winding through a commutator. As the commutator rotates on the shaft in sync with the stator, current flows through the coils and switches at the appropriate angle. The constant contact and friction between the brushes and commutator results in heat generation, which can lead to undesirable power losses, as well as sound generation caused by arching. This friction can cause wear on the brushes, requiring more frequent maintenance and shortened lifespan of the motor.
Brushless motors do not experience this mechanical friction because the commutation is done electrically. This results in longer product lifespan, lowering cost. Additionally, brushless motors weigh less than brushed motors, due to fewer mechanical components needed.